An allergy is a reaction of the body's immune system to commonly harmless substances in the environment called allergens. Allergy is characterized as a type I hypersensitivity reaction in which specific blood cells, basophils and mast cells, play a leading role, as well as a specific type of antibody, immunoglobulin E. Foods (eg fish, eggs), drugs (eg fish) insect bites, pollen, paints, dust, animal hair, contrast media used in imaging tests, cosmetics, etc.
Allergens (antigens) reach the body through respiration, skin contact or even through food or injection. When the body meets a foreign substance that acts as an allergen, its immune system activates the defense mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity to neutralize the antigen. In response to allergens, the body's immune system produces antibodies, which have a specific defense depending on the antigen.
Symptoms depend on the substance involved and can affect the airways, skin or even the digestive system. In some cases, allergies can trigger a life-threatening reaction, also known as anaphylaxis. They are usually manifested by itching , sneezing, runny nose, itching in the nose, eyes or upper mouth, erythema (redness), irritation (stinging) or tearing or swollen eyes. In the case of skin allergies, such as atopic dermatitis, itching, redness and peeling of the skin are observed.
Insomnia is a common sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in relaxing to achieve sleep and / or difficulty staying asleep despite the person's ability to enjoy adequate sleep. People who suffer from insomnia usually do not feel rested when they wake up, which negatively affects the performance during the day. Insomnia has a serious impact on vitality and energy levels, mood, health, work life and quality of life in general.
Most adults need seven to eight hours of sleep normally each night, with the ideal duration varying slightly from person to person. An insomnia episode may be individual and not last long, but in some cases, insomnia lasts for months or even years, so the disorder is characterized as chronic. Insomnia can be primary, not due to another disorder or disease, or secondary, due to another problem.
Diarrhea is the presence of three or more, usually watery bowel movements per day, or the increased frequency of bowel movements in relation to the person's habits. It is a common condition and will affect almost every person at least once in their life without being a cause for concern. Diarrhea is an imbalance between intestinal absorption and secretion of water and electrolytes from the intestine.
Diarrhea is a symptom that can have several causes. These include viruses, food poisoning, parasites, drugs, digestive problems, or gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease, Ulcerative Colitis, etc. Patients often report having diarrhea without being actually diarrheal or having diarrhea without realizing it. Increased bowel movements (> 3 times a day) and / or watery stools may indicate diarrhea, but it is important to investigate previous bowel movements prior to this episode. Diarrhea can be acute or chronic in duration and characteristics. Usually up to two weeks is defined as acute, while if it lasts longer (especially more than 30 days), it is characterized as chronic. An intermediate condition is when it lasts from 14-30 days, when it is characterized as persistent diarrhea.
Diarrhea is usually a problem that lasts one to two days and goes away without much treatment. However, if it persists and is prolonged, it may hide another, perhaps significant problem. One of its effects is dehydration and electrolyte loss, which needs immediate treatment, especially if it is diarrhea in children.
Organic manifestations that may accompany diarrhea include abdominal pain, cramps, bloating, nausea, and even fever or bloody discharge, at which point the patient is required to contact his physician immediately. The treatment of diarrhea includes, depending on the investigation of the causes and the instructions of the doctor, replenishment of the lost fluids to prevent dehydration. In some cases, medication, diet adjustment and the use of special preparations to restore the normal function of the intestinal walls are recommended.
The immune system is the body's complex network that is responsible for "defending" itself against harmful factors, such as bacteria and dangerous chemicals. With each seasonal change, the human body experiences change in energy levels, metabolism, and even dietary preferences. A natural consequence of seasonal change is frequent viral infections and cold due to the body's reduced defense.
The common cold is the most frequent mild infection of the respiratory system and occurs mainly during winter period. Symptoms include sore throat, runny and stuffy nose, sneezing and cough. These are usually accompanied by muscle aches, weakness, malaise, headache, and decreased appetite. It is caused by viruses other than the flu and the symptoms that come with it last for a few days and can be easily treated with analgesics and antipyretics. Additional preparations such as antitussives, antihistamines, and nasal decongestants and / or dietary supplements, where in combination with a balanced and healthy diet can help treat and prevent these symptoms, strengthening and protecting the body's normal defense.
Headache is one of the most common and painful experiences and one of the most common reasons for seeking medical advice. As a symptom, pain in the head area (headache) has an extremely heterogeneous etiology. There are many forms of headache, which are classified as primary and secondary. Primary is characterized by headache that is not due to an exogenous factor or to an underlying disease. If the headache is due to a recognizable cause, then it is classified as secondary.
For the human body to stay alive and function properly, its temperature must remain constant, regardless of the ambient temperature, as well as the ever-changing rate of heat production within the body itself, through the various metabolic processes. For this reason, there is and functions in the body a biological "thermostat". It is the thermoregulatory center, located in the hypothalamus of the brain and controls body temperature fluctuations. Normal value is considered as to be close to 37 ° C, while daily temperature fluctuations are observed, with a minimum value in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon.
Fever is a common symptom occurring from various causes and is the increase of body temperature above normal levels (36.5 - 37.50C), through the rise of the biological thermostat set point by pyrogenic substances. When these substances reach our brain "thermostat", they rearrange it upwards, and as a result, commands are given to our body, to achieve the increase of heat production by increasing metabolism, muscle spasms and chills.
Fever serves as a defense mechanism, as the body's immune response may become stronger at high temperatures. It is usually accompanied by sweating, chills, and other subjective symptoms which in the absence of high fever is an indication of a serious illness. The most common cause is infections, whether viral or bacterial. It may also be due to tissue damage (eg from a trauma), inflammatory reactions of tissues and blood vessels, etc. serious complications.
Treatment includes, in addition to the administration of antipyretic drugs according to the appropriate dosage, consumption of a sufficient amount of cool fluids, use of warm pads, use of a warm bath, relatively light clothing, rest and application of the doctor's instructions.
Toothache can be in a single tooth, or it can be diffuse affecting a group of teeth while its intensity ranges from mild discomfort to extremely unbearable pain. Acute toothache has been described as the least tolerable pain in the human body. For most cases of dental pain, caries is responsible, which is a chronic disease of the hard dental tissues and leads to the creation of cavities on the surface of the tooth. Caries is caused by the effect of acids produced by microbes in the oral cavity after the breakdown of food debris left on the teeth. Other causes of pain include dental abscesses, dental fractures, tooth decay, injuries, and gum disease. An important factor in preventing the occurrence of dental pain is good oral hygiene for the treatment of caries, as well as regular visits to the dentist according to the schedule that he recommends to us to ensure timely dental care.
Menstrual cramps are a problem that concerns many women and is often considered "normal". Dysmenorrhea is the scientific term that describes the condition in which a woman has so much pain during menstruation that it forces her to limit her daily activities and leads her to take medication. The most common symptoms are pain in the lower abdomen, which often reflects on the waist and front and inner surface of the thighs. In addition, there may be nausea, vomiting, sweating, headache, diarrhea, and even fainting.
We distinguish two types of dysmenorrhea, the primary and the secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by the production of special chemicals called prostaglandins. These substances are normally produced by the uterus in every woman during menstruation and cause contractions of the myometrium in order to expel the "old" endometrium from the uterine cavity. The pain usually starts a few hours before the start of the period and lasts for the first one to two days. When the pain is due to a gynecological condition then we are talking about secondary dysmenorrhea. The most common pathological condition responsible for secondary dysmenorrhea is endometriosis.
Other conditions that cause menstrual pain are adenomyosis, the presence of pelvic inflammation, narrowing of the cervix, fibroids, and the use of IUDs (IntraUterine Device). Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the symptoms and includes treatment with simple analgesics and / or antispasmodics in mild forms of primary dysmenorrhea. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a very good effect because they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and it is good to take them at the first signs of the period and before the symptoms settle, while in more severe cases it is recommended to take contraceptives.
Wound is a damage to the continuity of skin tissues and is usually caused by an external factor that acts "violently" on the surface of the skin, such as when a sharp object enters the skin or rubs against a hard surface due to a fall. Superficial wounds often heal quickly without leaving scars. But there are also deeper wounds that can be accompanied by bleeding, be painful and more difficult to heal. The external appearance of a wound can be different in each phase. There may be wounds characterized by dry and hard "crust" (necrotic tissue), as there may also be wet-faced wounds, with the main feature of the production and secretion of fluids (serum, pus).
Minor injuries such as abrasions, cuts, and burns (household, chemical and solar) are wounds to the skin. These sores are sometimes smaller and sometimes larger and are usually treated at home, at work, at school or even on vacation. Minor injuries, such as falls, abrasions and minor injuries, are associated with our daily lives inside and outside the home and are some of the common minor injuries.
The most vulnerable parts of the body to such minor injuries are the hands and especially the finger area. However, if the wound is in an area that is constantly moving, such as the knees or elbows, it may take longer for the wounds to heal.
Burn is a tissue damage that can be caused by heat, cold, radiation, electricity, chemicals, or friction. For example, burns can be caused by boiling water, hot oil, iron or hair iron, kitchen stove, barbecue, detergents, laser, waxing, radiation therapy, etc.
The severity of the superficial burn varies depending on the extent of it on the body and the depth of the damage to the layers of the skin. The superficial burn is manifested by erythema (redness), stinging and limited swelling. It usually heals quickly and without scars within a few days if treated properly. There are also cases where the burn occurs to a large extent showing severe pain, erythema, and blistering.
Sunburn causes pain, erythema and irritation and is treated with the use of cold compresses, moisturizing lotions, special hydro active colloidal gel or with the use of mild analgesics, while it is necessary to avoid dehydration by taking sufficient amount of fluid and with alcohol avoidance.
For particularly extensive burns or burns that have caused blisters but also for burns in children or babies, it must be evaluated immediately by a doctor.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential fatty acids that are an integral part of cell membranes throughout the body, significantly affecting the function of the receptors on these membranes. The most important representatives of Omega 3 fatty acids are two, EPA or otherwise eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA or otherwise twenty-hexaenoic acid. In fact, DHAs are a key component of all cell membranes and are abundant in the brain and retina. EPA and DHA are considered by many researchers to be beneficial for the prevention, but also for the treatment of many health problems that concern modern man. Today's industrialized diet, which is based mainly on vegetable oils, is deficient in Omega 3.
Thousands of medical studies have proven their beneficial role in the normal functioning of the heart, brain, and eyes. They also participate in inflammatory processes by regulating inflammation because they modulate the expression of genes associated with it. Omega 3s can reduce triglycerides and promote good blood circulation, inhibiting platelet activation by lipoxygenase products.