Hashimoto's disease is a condition in which immune system attacks thyroid. A chronic autoimmune disease related to the antibody production aiming thyroid gland and causing inflammation and harm.

Inflammation from Hashimoto's disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, often leads to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. It primarily affects middle-aged women but can also occur in men and women of any age and in children.

Some of the symptoms are feeling of fullness in the throat, painless thyroid enlargement (goiter), exhaustion, transient neck pain, sore throat, or both.

Doctors test your thyroid function to help detect Hashimoto's disease. Treatment of Hashimoto's disease with thyroid hormone replacement usually is simple and effective.


A goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland which may be diffuse or localized as a nodule. The designation "non-toxic" goiter indicates that the thyroid gland, although enlarged, does not overproduce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Τhyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of neck just below Adam's apple. Although goiters are usually painless, a large goiter may cause coughing and difficulty swallowing and breathing.

The most common cause of goiters worldwide is a lack of iodine in the diet. Iodine is an essential element to produce thyroid hormones.

Goiter may compress vital structures in the throat, such as the trachea and esophagus. This compression can make it difficult to breathe and swallow.

Treatment depends on the size of the goiter, symptoms, and the cause. Small goiters that aren't noticeable and don't cause problems usually don't need treatment.

By dyslipidemia we mean the quantitative and qualitative disorders of the lipid metabolism of the human body. The main representatives of the lipids of the human body are cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) and triglycerides.

Dyslipidemia is classified into primary when it is of genetic (hereditary) etiology and in secondary which is the result of other pathological conditions or poor nutrition as well as lack of exercise. Also depending on the predominant disorder, which type of lipid is elevated, it is distinguished into hypercholesterolemia (increase in cholesterol), hypertriglyceridemia (increase in triglycerides) and mixed dyslipidemia (increase in cholesterol and triglycerides).

Primary dyslipidemias are rarer than secondary ones, characterized by significant lipid disorders, and occur at a younger age than secondary forms. Primary dyslipidemias are significantly responsible for the onset of cardiovascular disease (acute myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke) in young age groups (mainly in the 3rd and 4th decade of life). life, taking various medications, alcohol abuse as well as other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure, and obesity.

Four types of Thyroid cancer are existed:

  • Papillary carcinomas
  • Follicular carcinomas
  • Anaplastic carcinomas
  • Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC)

Approximately 80% of cases belong to Papillary carcinomas, a cancer affecting mostly women and particularly young women.

Αυτός ο καρκίνος επηρεάζει κυρίως τις γυναίκες και ιδιαίτερα τις νεότερες.

Another 15% are Follicular Carcinomas, an aggressive version of cancer. Anaplastic cancer is common among elderly women representing a 2% of cases, also an aggressive version of cancer and difficult in treatment.

In MTC calcitonin is produced and the disease might appear alone or in combination with other cancers of endocrine glands, a syndrome called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome. MTC represents a 3% of thyroid cancers with a difficult treatment if it has been spread beyond thyroid.

Στο μυελοειδές καρκίνωμα του θυρεοειδούς (MTC) παράγεται καλσιτονίνη και μπορεί να εμφανιστεί μόνο του ή σε συνδυασμό με άλλους καρκίνους ενδοκρινών αδένων σε σύνδρομο που ονομάζεται σύνδρομο πολλαπλής ενδοκρινικής νεοπλασίας.

Ο MTC αποτελεί το 3% των καρκίνων του θυρεοειδούς.

Η θεραπεία του μπορεί να είναι δύσκολη εάν επεκταθεί πέρα από τον θυρεοειδή.

Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of bone metabolism in which low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading gradually to increased bone fragility. Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle - so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture causing a growing risk of fracture.

Osteoporosis is sometimes referred to as the “silent disease” without apparent symptoms until a fracture occurs. Osteoporosis affects men and women regardless ace. Especially older women who are past menopause - are at highest risk.  

Main clinical demonstration is low-impact fracture, this defined as a fracture occurring spontaneously or from a fall no greater than standing height.

Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip (20%), wrist (20%), spine (40%) and a 20% in other bones.

Loss of height and kyphosis are late clinical features of the disease due to spine fractures. Other consequences are backpain and waist pain, psychological problems, and finally bad quality of life.

Medications, healthy diet, and weight-bearing exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.

Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone. A situation most common among women which might be hereditary. In adults if not treated, could affect negatively either body or mental functions.

Diagnosis is particularly essential during pregnancy because it might affect physical and mental fetus development. At the same time, it’s diagnosis among children is very important, thus thyroid function is examined to all neonates.

Among symptoms are included fatigue, loss of energy, lethargy, weight gain, decreased appetite, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, sleepiness, muscle pain, joint pain, menstrual disturbances, impaired fertile etc