Magnesium is an intracellular mineral found in all tissues of the body and especially in the bones and plays an important role in controlling important biochemical functions (activation of enzymes involved in DNA replication and transcription), calcium transport to cell membranes, and in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. It affects the muscular and nervous function, while it works synergistically with the calcium with which it must be in balance. It contributes to the absorption of calcium and the good health of denture and plays an important role in bone health, reducing the possibility of osteoporosis especially during menopause. It is absolutely necessary during pregnancy and breastfeeding as it lack can cause very serious damage to the fetus and even death. The proper functioning of our muscular system is largely dependent on magnesium, as it relaxes the muscles and tissues. It also contributes to the regulation of sugar as it participates in the process of secretion and transport of insulin to all individual tissues.

It is involved in more than 300 metabolic processes in the body, while more than 3,750 magnesium binding sites have been found in human proteins. The proper functioning of the metabolism also depends on magnesium as this contributes to energy production.

The pathology of the cervix includes both benign and malignant lesions. Benign lesions are polyps (cervical and endometrial) and fibroids. Malignancies are mainly due to the action of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) refers to the presence of dysplastic lesions in the cervical epithelium, without rupture of the basement membrane with the main cause being HPV infection, which primarily affects the basal cell cells. The more cell layers, from basal to superficial (superficial), show cellular lesions, the greater the severity of the intraepithelial lesion. Lastly, this distinction in three degrees is replaced by another with two degrees, the mild and the severe degree of squamous intraepithelial lesion. About 80% of cases of mild CIN resolve spontaneously over time, while in the remaining 20% the lesions persist or develop into severe dysplasia. On the contrary, severe damage carries risks of becoming invasive. Prophylactic screening for early detection of precancerous and cancerous lesions in the cervix includes cytological examination of swabs from the cervix of women, known as the Pap test.

Vaginal yeast infection (candidiasis) is a common condition amongst women, which can cause discomfort in everyday life. Vaginal yeast infection is caused by the fungus Candida Albicans. The candida fungus lives under normal conditions on our skin or in our gut as a saprophyte and does not cause problems. However, under changes in local conditions, it can develop pathologically and cause fungal infections, the so-called candidiasis. Candidiasis usually occurs where there are folds on the skin: under the breast, in the interdigital areas on the hands and feet, in the femoral folds, in the armpits, as well as in the buttocks.

Candidiasis is not usually sexually transmitted, which may occur in some cases. Both the female and male genitals can be infected with various fungi. Symptoms include intense vaginal itching, pain, white, thick, odourless discharge and discomfort. The frequency of fungal infections is higher in summer, since the increased temperature of the season in combination with the moisture in the vaginal area, as well as the alkaline environment that sweat usually creates, favor the growth of fungi, which does not mean that we are not at risk in winter.

Τα πιο συνήθη συμπτώματα στις γυναίκες είναι:

• Πόνος, φαγούρα, ερεθισμός, φλεγμονή στο αιδοίο και στον κόλπο με αίσθημα καύσου
• Έντονες κολπικές εκκρίσεις με λίγη έως καθόλου δυσοσμία
• Οίδημα και κοκκίνισμα του αιδοίου
• Η εσωτερική επιφάνεια του κόλπου μπορεί να είναι καλυμμένη με λευκά υγρά
• Το δέρμα της περιοχής μπορεί να είναι ευαίσθητο και να παρουσιάζει σπασίματα – εκδορές

Various risk factors contribute to the possibility of developing fungal infections such as diabetes, increased estrogen levels, the use of antibiotics, immunosuppression, high stress, etc. The treatment includes topical washing with antiseptic and good wiping. Subsequently, topical vaginal suppositories or creams with antifungal action, or systemic treatment with oral tablets, are usually prescribed.

Στην πιθανότητα ανάπτυξης μυκητιάσεων συντελούν διάφοροι παράγοντες κινδύνου όπως ο σακχαρώδης διαβήτης, αυξημένα επίπεδα οιστρογόνων, χρήση αντιβιοτικών, ανοσοκαταστολή, υψηλό στρες κλπ.  Η διάγνωση και θεραπεία είναι εξατομικευμένη και γίνεται με βάση το ιστορικό, τα συμπτώματα και τις εργαστηριακές εξετάσεις.
Η θεραπεία περιλαμβάνει τοπικό πλύσιμο με αντισηπτικό και καλό σκούπισμα. Στη συνέχεια χορηγούνται συνήθως τοπικά κολπικά υπόθετα ή κρέμες με αντιμυκητιασική δράση, είτε συστηματική θεραπεία με δισκία από το στόμα.

Urinary tract infection is a general term that refers to infections of the urogenital system by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infections. Normally, bacteria that enter the urinary tract from the urethra are quickly removed by urination before they settle in and cause symptoms. However, sometimes bacteria outgrow the body's natural defenses and cause infection. The infection in the urethra is called urethritis, while in the bladder it is called cystitis. The urinary system has various mechanisms to prevent infections. But despite these mechanisms, infections still occur. Some bacteria have a strong ability to attach to the walls of the urinary tract and thus multiply, causing urinary tract infections. Women often suffer from urinary tract infections. Each additional episode increases the risk of recurrence (recurrent urinary tract infections), i.e. with three or more episodes of urinary tract infection each year.

The symptoms of a urinary tract infection vary with age and gender. In young women, urinary tract infections occur frequently, with burning and pain in the lower abdomen or external genitalia when urinating, and the presence of blood is not uncommon, especially at the end of urination. Older women may report weakness and abdominal pain, especially if they have a fever. Urine may look cloudy, dark, or bloody or even have an unpleasant odor. Usually, urinary tract infections do not cause a fever if only the bladder is infected.

Menstrual cramps are a problem that concerns many women and is often considered "normal". Dysmenorrhea is the scientific term that describes the condition in which a woman has so much pain during menstruation that it forces her to limit her daily activities and leads her to take medication. The most common symptoms are pain in the lower abdomen, which often reflects on the waist and front and inner surface of the thighs. In addition, there may be nausea, vomiting, sweating, headache, diarrhea, and even fainting.

We distinguish two types of dysmenorrhea, the primary and the secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by the production of special chemicals called prostaglandins. These substances are normally produced by the uterus in every woman during menstruation and cause contractions of the myometrium in order to expel the "old" endometrium from the uterine cavity. The pain usually starts a few hours before the start of the period and lasts for the first one to two days. When the pain is due to a gynecological condition then we are talking about secondary dysmenorrhea. The most common pathological condition responsible for secondary dysmenorrhea is endometriosis.

Other conditions that cause menstrual pain are adenomyosis, the presence of pelvic inflammation, narrowing of the cervix, fibroids, and the use of IUDs (IntraUterine Device). Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the symptoms and includes treatment with simple analgesics and / or antispasmodics in mild forms of primary dysmenorrhea. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a very good effect because they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and it is good to take them at the first signs of the period and before the symptoms settle, while in more severe cases it is recommended to take contraceptives.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women and includes a range of heterogeneous elements that cover a wide range of clinical manifestations, from milder, such as menstrual disorders, to more severe, such as the risk of developing diabetes. diabetes. The first symptoms usually appear in adolescence, although in many women they may appear later. SPO differs from polycystic ovaries which are a finding of ultrasound in routine gynecological examination.

The diagnosis is based on the Rotterdam criteria. The woman with SOP must meet two of the three criteria:

  • Oligomenorrhea and / or amenorrhea
  • Increased androgens
  • Polycystic ovary morphology on ultrasound

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome has a strong familial effect, which shows that there is a large genetic contribution to its occurrence. It is not exactly known how it is inherited, but recent studies show that it is related to the expression of a predominant gene. Due to the peripheral conversion of estrogen to androgens, there are masculine effects, ie hair loss and acne, while at the same time the woman's menstrual period is not regular. At the same time, because of the effect of hormones on insulin, there is a significant tendency for obesity.