Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system. Neuropathic pain should be divided into peripheral and central neuropathic pain.

Peripheral neuropathic pain can be caused by diabetes, metabolic disorders, postherpetic neuralgia, HIV-related neuropathies, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, immune system disorders, and trauma to the nerve trunk.

Central neuropathic pain can be caused by spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and in some cases strokes. Neuropathic pain is common in cancer, as a direct result of cancer of the peripheral nerves or as a side effect of chemotherapy-radiotherapy-surgery.

Neuropathic pain is probably the second most common cause of chronic pain after musculoskeletal pain.

"Brain fog" is a common condition that affects people of all ages and is characterized by the appearance of confusion and a lack of mental clarity. Studies estimate its incidence as one per two hundred people in the general population, with a strong presence in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy.

People with brain fog show symptoms such as decreased mental acuity, cognitive problems, difficulty in concentrating and performing multiple tasks at the same time, short-term memory problems, problems with completing tasks and scheduling, and severe drowsiness or confusion.

The causes of brain fog are many including physical, emotional, and biochemical factors.

Some of them are:

Medical conditions: The brain fog disrupts the daily life of patients suffering from a wide range of diseases and disorders, such as cancer (oncology patients receiving chemotherapy as well as opioid drugs), autism, migraines, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, celiac disease, fibroid pain, cognitive impairment, and other neuropsychiatric disorders

Stress: The hormone released because of stress, triggers certain cells of the immune system, and local inflammation develops in the brain, which often affects the quality of patient’s life.

Lack of sleep: Poor sleep quality can interfere with the functional performance of the brain

Hormone levels: Changes in hormonal levels might cause "brainfog".

Nutrition: Nutrition can also play an important role in triggering brain fog.

Treating the symptoms of brain fog can include healthy diet, quality sleep, scheduling specific tasks to complete them, a normal work-life balance, as well as intake of specific food supplements in order to treat the inflammatory process in the brain, reduce confusion and improve concentration.


Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness characterized by a distorted perception of reality. It involves differences in the way one thinks, feels and acts. It affects the lives of both the patients and their families by afflicting both men and women. Although the causes are not known, a combination of genetic, biological and environmental factors appears to be responsible for the disease (social stress). Heredity and brain structure play an important part, as the disease tends to appear in members of the same family. Diagnosis and treatment are performed solely by a psychiatrist.

The patient experiences symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, suspicion, illusions as well as "negative symptoms" which refer to reduced or even lack of ability of the patient to function normally, e.g. the patients may neglect their personal hygiene, or demonstrate decreased emotional expression (absence of eye contact and facial expressions or monotonous speech). Symptoms may vary in type and severity over time, with periods of deterioration or remission, while some remain stable.

Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, mainly with antipsychotic drugs, even when the symptoms have subsided, and in some cases hospitalization may be needed. Psychotherapy, vocational training and social rehabilitation are also important for the treatment. If not treated in time, the disease can worsen and cause unpleasant or even dangerous complications.

Bipolar Disorder 

Bipolar Disorder (also known as manic depression) is a mental health condition with alternating periods of euphoria and depression, characterized by two emotional disorders, mania, and depression. It alternates from periods of normality (normal mood) to periods of mania, hypomania or depression.

The clear cause of bipolar disorder is not known. It is widely believed to be the result of imbalances in the brain of the chemical substances responsible for controlling the brin’s functions, so called as neurotransmitters, who include noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. It seems that the disease might be genetic as studies show that sometimes runs in families.

It stems from a dysfunction of the brain, which sometimes over-functions (mania) and sometimes under-functions (depression), affecting both mental (attention, memory, thought, perception, emotion, psychomotor skills) and physical functions (energy, libido, sleep).. The patient may experience a variety of symptoms such as elevated mood or irritability, agitation or anxiety, overconfidence, decreased need for sleep, “racing thoughts”, desire to talk constantly, depression, anhedonia, difficulty in sleeping or waking up etc. depending on whether they are related to mania, hypomania, or depression.

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong medical condition, and its treatment is focused on symptom management. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and antidepressants. According to the international literature, the best therapeutic results stem from the combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Η Διπολική Διαταραχή αποτελεί μια νοσολογική κατάσταση που απασχολεί διά βίου του ασθενείς και η θεραπευτική αντιμετώπιση της προσανατολίζεται στην διαχείριση των συμπτωμάτων. Φάρμακα που χρησιμοποιούνται για τη θεραπεία της Διπολικής Διαταραχής περιλαμβάνουν σταθεροποιητικά της διάθεσης, αντιψυχωσικά και αντικαταθλιπτικά. Σύμφωνα με την διεθνή βιβλιογραφία, καλύτερα θεραπευτικά αποτελέσματα έχει ο συνδυασμός φαρμακευτικής αγωγής με ψυχοθεραπεία.

Stimulation in patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder

Stimulation can generally be defined as a state of excessive anxiety associated with mental distress and excessive motor activity that is related to feelings of inner tension and is a known complication of both mental illnesses. It is a multifactorial disorder that is associated with various conditions and in severe cases it requires immediate intervention. Without treatment, stimulation can quickly escalate into an aggressive, threatening, and violent behaviour.

One of the main goals of stimulation’s treatment is the quick halting of the episode (in order to stop the escalation process) and the immediate control of the stimulation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.